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Our Lady of Sorrows

September 13, 2019

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Our Lady of Sorrows

Various Spiritual Titles. Our Lady of Sorrows is known by a number of different names. In Latin, she is called the Mater Dolorosa, the Sorrowful Mother. Mary endured The Seven Dolors or the Seven Sorrows.

A Two Day Celebration. A memorial that honors Mary is combined with a feast that honors Jesus. The Exaltation of the Holy Cross is on September 14 and Our Lady of Sorrows is on September 15. Similarly, earlier in the year, the Sacred Heart of Jesus is paired with the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

Like Son, Like Mother. Both the hearts of Jesus and Mary were pierced. The heart of Jesus was pierced when a soldier thrust his lance into the side of Jesus (Jn 19:34a), and when Mary presented her infant son Jesus in the Temple, Simeon told her, “You yourself a sword will pierce” (Lk 2:35).

Mary’s Sorrow. Mary shows in a heartrending way how when the person you love suffers, you suffer along with them. A mother suffers when her child suffers. As Jesus hung on the Cross in agony, Mary stood at the foot of the Cross (Jn 19:25) agonizing along with him. Mary suffered her own passion as she participated in her son Jesus’ Passion.

One of Seven. Mary’s sorrow at the foot of the Cross was not her first or her last. Traditionally there are seven sorrows of Mary, three during the early years of Jesus’ life and four on Good Friday. The first sorrow was Simeon’s prophecy, the troubling announcement that her heart would be pierced by a sword. The second sorrow was the flight to Egypt (Mt 2:13-15), the terrible anguish Mary endured knowing that the king wanted to kill her child, the hardship of a grueling trip across the desert, and the sadness of living in Egypt as a refugee apart from family and friends for a number of years. The third sorrow was the overwhelming fear that she experienced when her son Jesus was lost for three days in the Temple (Lk 2:41-52).

The Four Sorrows of Good Friday. The fourth sorrow was the tragic moment when Mary met Jesus along a street in Jerusalem as he carried his Cross. The fifth sorrow was the torment she endured as she stood at the foot of the Cross and watched her son writhe in pain and then die such an ignominious death. The sixth sorrow was when Jesus was taken down from the Cross and laid in her arms. And finally, the seventh sorrow was for Mary to watch, weeping, as her son was laid in the tomb.

Special Mass Texts. In addition to the Scripture readings that are recommended for the Mass, either Heb 5:7-9 or Col 1:24-25 for the first reading, and either Jn 19:25-27 or Lk 2:33-35 for the gospel, the Lectionary also offers an optional Sequence, a prose reflection on Mary’s sorrows, and the Stabat Mater, a poetic reflection with the verses that are commonly sung with the Stations of the Cross.

Our Lady of Sorrows in Art. The most famous representation of the Sorrowful Mother is the Pieta by Michelangelo which is on display at St. Peter’s Vatican Basilica in Rome. The primary symbol for Our Lady of Sorrows is a red heart pierced on top by a single sword. Mary is often portrayed with her head slumping, supported by her hand, her eyes downcast, and her face streaming with tears. She also is often shown with a single sword thrust into her chest or with her heart visible above her chest and pierced by seven swords.

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The History of the Devotion to Our Lady of Sorrows

September 13, 2019

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The biblical origin of the memorial of our Lady of Sorrows is found in the Infancy Narrative of the gospel of Luke when, during the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, Simeon told the Blessed Mother Mary, “You yourself a sword will pierce” (Lk 2:35). It was a deeply disturbing message on what should have been an extremely joyful day. Simeon forewarned Mary that she would endure much hardship in the future: burdens and anxiety, pain and suffering, tears and mourning. It was unknown when it would happen, how it would happen, or how hard it would be, but trouble surely was coming. The announcement itself was a sorrow for Mary.

Church historians believe that St. Anselm (1033-1109), a Benedictine monk, bishop, and Doctor of the Church, and the Benedictines, were the first to introduce the concept of Our Lady of Sorrows or the Sorrowful Mother during the Eleventh Century. The first liturgical celebration of the feast was during the Twelfth Century.

By the Fourteenth Century the single sorrow of Mary had been expanded to seven, three from the early years and four from Good Friday. The first three sorrows of Mary are Simeon’s painful prediction (Lk 2:35), the panic-stricken Flight into Egypt and the years spent as a refugee (Mt 2:13-15,19-22), and the acute anxiety of losing her son for three days (Lk 2:48). The final four sorrows of Mary are her encounter with Jesus as he carried his Cross, the torment of standing at the foot of the Cross to witness her son’s suffering and death (Jn 19:25a), the anguish of receiving his lifeless body in her arms as he was taken down from the Cross, and the grief of watching her son’s burial as he was laid in the tomb.

During the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries two religious orders, the Cistercians and the Servites of Mary, were strong advocates of the devotion to Our Lady of Sorrows through their preaching and missionary work, and the devotion spread throughout Europe and more broadly to the universal Church. The Servites consider Our Lady of Sorrows as their patron saint, they celebrate her memorial as their patronal feast, and it was first celebrated by their order in 1423 in Cologne, Germany.

The memorial gained greater momentum in 1482 when it was added to the Missal under its former name, “Our Lady of Compassion.” Compassion was used because Jesus’ Passion became Mary’s passion, and as Jesus suffered, she suffered with him.

In 1668 the Servites of Mary introduced a similar devotion to commemorate the Seven Dolors of Mary. It was placed on the Roman Calendar in 1814 and celebrated on the first Sunday after September 14.

In 1727 Pope Benedict XIII universalized the devotion to Our Lady of Sorrows when he placed it on the Roman Calendar, and for nearly two hundred years it was celebrated by the worldwide Church on the Friday before Palm Sunday. Then in 1913 Pope Pius X permanently transferred the memorial to September 15, the day after the Exaltation of the Holy Cross on September 14, to combine the celebration of and reflection upon of the Passion of Jesus and the passion of Mary on consecutive days (see Lodi, E., Saints of the Roman Calendar, 264).

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Our Lady of Sorrows

September 17, 2015

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Our Lady of SorrowsVarious Spiritual Titles. Our Lady of Sorrows is known by a number of different names. In Latin, she is called the Mater Dolorosa, the Sorrowful Mother. Mary endured The Seven Dolors or the Seven Sorrows.

A Two Day Celebration. A memorial that honors Mary is combined with a feast that honors Jesus. The Exaltation of the Holy Cross is on September 14 and Our Lady of Sorrows is on September 15. Similarly, earlier in the year, the Sacred Heart of Jesus is paired with the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

Like Son, Like Mother. Both the hearts of Jesus and Mary were pierced. The heart of Jesus was pierced when a soldier thrust his lance into the side of Jesus (Jn 19:34a), and when Mary presented her infant son Jesus in the Temple, Simeon told her, “You yourself a sword shall pierce” (Lk 2:35).

Mary’s Sorrow.   Mary shows in a heartrending way how when the person you love suffers, you suffer along with them. A mother suffers when her child suffers. As Jesus hung on the Cross in agony, Mary stood at the foot of the Cross (Jn 19:25) agonizing along with him. Mary suffered her own passion as she participated in her son Jesus’ Passion.

One of Seven. Mary’s sorrow at the foot of the Cross was not her first or her last. Traditionally there are seven sorrows of Mary, three during the early years of Jesus’ life and four on Good Friday. The first sorrow was Simeon’s prophecy, the troubling announcement that her heart would by pierced by a sword. The second sorrow was the flight to Egypt (Mt 2:13-15), the terrible anguish Mary endured knowing that the king wanted to kill her child, the hardship of the grueling trip across the desert, and the sadness of living in Egypt as a refugee apart from family and friends for a number of years. The third sorrow was the overwhelming fear that she experienced when her son Jesus was lost for three days in the Temple (Lk 2:41-52).

The Four Sorrows of Good Friday. The fourth sorrow was the tragic moment when Mary met Jesus along a street in Jerusalem as he carried his Cross. The fifth sorrow was the torment she endured as she stood at the foot of the Cross and watched her son writhe in pain and then die such an ignominious death. The sixth sorrow was when Jesus was taken down from the Cross and laid in her arms. And finally, the seventh sorrow was for Mary to watch, weeping, as her son was laid in the tomb.

Special Mass Texts. In addition to the Scripture readings that are recommended for the Mass, either Heb 5:7-9 or Col 1:24-25 for the first reading, and either Jn 19:25-27 or Lk 2:33-35 for the gospel, the Lectionary also offers an optional Sequence, a prose reflection on Mary’s sorrows, and the Stabat Mater, a poetic reflection with the verses that are commonly sung with the Stations of the Cross.

Our Lady of Sorrows in Art. The most famous representation of the Sorrowful Mother is the Pieta by Michelangelo which is on display at St. Peter’s Vatican Basilica in Rome. The primary symbol for Our Lady of Sorrows is a red heart pierced on top by a single sword. Mary is often portrayed with her head slumping, supported by her hand, her eyes downcast, and her face streaming with tears. She also is often shown with a single sword thrust into her chest or with her heart visible above her chest and pierced by seven swords.

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