August 29 is the memorial of The Passion of Saint John the Baptist. It was known formerly as The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist.
Annual Memorial. This memorial in honor of the Baptist began in the Fourth Century AD at the dedication of the Church of St. John at Sebaste in Samaria, Israel, where, according to tradition, John’s skull had been buried by his disciples. This commemoration gradually spread to the universal church, first to the East in the Fifth Century and to Rome by the Seventh Century.
The Historical Event. The account of the Baptist’s passion is given in two of the four gospels, the original version in Mk 6:17-29, and an edited and shortened account in Mt 14:3-12. Biblical historians believe that the beheading of John took place at Machaerus, a fort in the desert on the east side of the Dead Sea in modern-day Jordan. It had been built by King Herod the Great as a desert hideaway, and his son, King Herod Antipas, went there occasionally.
Foreshadowing. John the Baptist is the forerunner or precursor. John went ahead of Jesus with his miraculous birth and his unique role as prophet, preacher, and baptizer. These set the stage for Jesus’ own miraculous birth, as well as his baptism and his ministry as prophet and teacher. John the Baptist’s suffering and death prefigures Jesus’ suffering and death, and the details in the account of the passion of John anticipate the Passion of Jesus. Specific similarities include: John spoke the truth, Jesus is truth; it was the festive occasion of a birthday, it was the festive occasion of Passover; Herodias bitterly opposed John, the religious leaders bitterly opposed Jesus; John was arrested and bound, Jesus was arrested and bound; Herod declared John innocent, Pilate declared Jesus innocent; John was held in a prison cell in Machaerus, Jesus was held in a prison cell below Caiaphas’ palace; Herod tried to please his wife, Pilate attempted to please the crowds; Herod condemned John, Pilate condemned Jesus; Roman soldiers put John to death by beheading, Roman soldiers put Jesus to death by crucifixion; John’s disciples took his body and laid it in a tomb, and Joseph of Arimathea took the body of Jesus and laid it in a tomb.
Larger Gospel Context. Mark carefully placed the account of the Baptist’s death between two sections on the missionary work of the first apostles. In Mark 6:7-13 Jesus sends the Twelve out two by two, and in Mark 6:30-33 the apostles return to Jesus to report what they have done. Mark wants to show that it requires tremendous courage to speak the truth and proclaim the gospel, and that it will lead to bitter suffering.
Gospel Preview. The Cross is not mentioned explicitly in the Baptist’s passion account, but it is Mark’s underlying mindset. The death of John is a preview of the death of Jesus, and for John his beheading was his cross. Everyone who is a disciple must carry their cross.
Spiritual Applications. The Baptist had a number of outstanding spiritual qualities. He was a fierce advocate for truth and justice, fought hard for what is right, demonstrated his faith in a very public manner, walked in straight paths and urged others to do likewise, directed attention away from himself to Jesus, had a humble estimation of himself, and endured the suffering that came his way. These admirable traits serve as inspiration and guidance for our spiritual lives.